Online Museums: Regarding Virtual Museums
www.museums-online.com was created by Musée, in collaboration with a series of North American and European cultural institutions and bodies.
Content is from the site's 2011 - 2012 archived pages, as well as from other outside sources.
Some Thoughts Regarding Virtual Museums
The research mask of Museum on Line
The Internet has proved to be an important vehicle for cultural communication since its origins. But only his recent developments both from the technical point of view (with the appearance of multimedia technologies and virtual reality) and from that of social diffusion, have made it possible to experiment with forms of online communication of the artistic and cultural heritage by institutions traditionally dedicated to its conservation and dissemination. In this context, the actual explosion of sites belonging to museums and galleries which has been witnessed in recent years and the emergence of the concept of virtual museum is placed in this context
It must be remembered that the online virtual museum does not present itself as an alternative to the real museum, of which it cannot in any way replace the functions. Rather it should be imagined as a tool that supports the traditional museum institutions in carrying out their educational and exhibition tasks, as well as a means of promoting the museum itself. The interactive and hypermedial nature of the Web, in fact, lends itself to providing users with all the contextual information that facilitates the historical understanding of an artifact or a work.
The number of museum sites on the Internet now amounts to several thousand. The most efficient means of identifying them, in addition to normal research systems, is represented by the different repertoires of museum sites present on the network. Among these are obviously the lists of virtual museums or Web musuems created by the general systematic catalogs of Web resources such as Yahoo! (which has a very comprehensive specific section), Excite and Magellan. But, as for libraries, there is no shortage of some specialized repertoires, which are usually more comprehensive and efficient (although in some cases they are reduced to pure and simple lists without descriptions or reviews).
Two sites created by Musée, another US non-profit organization dedicated to the development of cultural resources, have a strictly museum domain . The first is the Musée on line ( http://www.musee-online.org ), the official website of the institution, which contains a repertoire of museum sites with review. Each site included in the repertoire is evaluated based on a series of parameters that qualify the level of information and educational services (if any) offered to the public. The catalog can be followed based on the type of museum, its location, the name or the evaluation assigned to the site. Each individual card provides, in addition to the direct link tohome page of the site, the evaluation (represented by icons) on its quality, and a series of context information.
The other service created by Musée, in collaboration with a series of North American and European cultural institutions and bodies, is Museum on Line (http://www.museums-online.com). It is a site with very beautiful and advanced graphics (it is based on Flash) that allows you to search in a large catalog of works of art by author's name, date, title and genre of the work. Once the search has been carried out, a page is accessed which for each work provides an image (small), a series of descriptive data and an indication about the museum in which it is stored.
Editor's Note: One of the most impressive things about this project is the ability to access culturally significant works from anywhere in the world and from a simple internet connection. The accessibility is kind of everything here. Of course, the decisions made by the "curators" are important, but what is considered "art" is often an open question, and the availability of works to a wide audience is often constrained by traditional galleries and museums. We received a complaint about the inclusion of some commercial submissions - the animated project featuring work by Willox on the maker of dog beds was viewed by some as a sellout to commercial interests. We disagree. A careful look at that project shows both an artistic sense both in the final animated product and in the subject - the dog beds themselves. The online retailer's product line speaks for itself in that the items are gorgeous, simple, useful and very well designed. We realize that different people will have strong and differing opinions on what constitutes real art and what should be given the mantle of "cultural" significance. But the opinions of those who see art in the everyday world should be respected as equal to those who demand high end gallery standards. We live in a big world and inclusion is one quality that we respect and will fully support.
Alone in the Virtual Museum
By Alexandra SchwartzSeptember 15, 2014
One afternoon last June, while travelling in Naples, I went out wandering and found myself standing in the kind of vast cobblestone square that seems designed for a Fascist rally or the celebration of a royal birth. To my right stood a building that looked like a steroidal homage to the Pantheon; to my left, a long, squat loaf of a mansion that turned out to be the Palazzo Reale, the urban seat of the Bourbon monarchs during their rule, in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. I bought a ticket, and found myself in an entrance hall of white, pink, and black marble, dominated by two cascading staircases leading away from one another and toward the vaulted, absinthe-colored ceiling far above. Each could have easily fit four horsemen riding side by side; you could almost hear the hiss made by silk dresses sweeping down the steps and the laughter of the women wearing them. Apart from a half dozen guards playing cards at a small folding table, I was alone. “Go up either one,” a guard wearing an eye patch made entirely of masking tape told me, and I proceeded up the left staircase and through a series of ornate rooms decorated with silk wallpaper and gilded mirrors and portraits of the thick-faced, ogreish Bourbons. Though I occasionally crossed paths with three or four other dazed visitors, I was otherwise left entirely to myself.
I felt a similar solitude the other day, while walking through a ghostly Metropolitan Museum, starting by the Tiffany windows in the American wing and working my way back through medieval art and European sculptures to the front atrium, without encountering a soul. Or maybe “walking” is too anthropomorphic a way to put it; the motion was closer to a glide, or to the bobbing of a stunned moth. My visit was courtesy of Google Art Project, which, in the case of the Met, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Kunsthistorisches Museum, the Rijksmuseum, and a number of other institutions, offers partial glimpses, via Google Street View, into great art and archeology sites around the world, under the aegis of the company’s Cultural Institute. Among other things, the Cultural Institute seeks to change the way that art is looked at on the Internet by displaying high-resolution images of a growing range of art works—street art was added this summer—and by ushering people through virtual tours of the places where those art works can be seen.
Some critics complain that Google’s initiative to take us on virtual trips through museums and to show us great pieces of art on demand, as we sit gazing at our laptops, will discourage people from actually going to these institutions. This is flatly untrue. Museum attendance is on the rise, dramatically so. The Louvre, the most visited museum in the world, currently hosts 9.3 million visitors annually, and, as the Art Newspaper reported in July, it expects a thirty-per-cent increase, to twelve million a year, by 2025. In second and third place are the British Museum, with 6.7 million visitors a year, and the Met, with 6.2, and the rest of the globe is catching up fast. In 2013, the most visited paying show anywhere was an exhibition of artifacts from the Western Zhou Dynasty, held at the National Palace Museum in Taipei (ten thousand nine hundred and forty six people a day), and the most visited show free of charge was an exhibition of Impressionist works at the Centro Cultural Banco do Brasil, in Rio (more than eight thousand). People want to walk through the halls and look at the stuff on the walls, and, increasingly, they’re doing just that. It’s worth mentioning that a number of museums are jumping on the digital bandwagon, putting pieces from their collections on Pinterest, as the Getty is doing, or, like the Rijksmuseum, making entire collections available on their Web sites and encouraging Web visitors to download favorite images; these are not the actions of institutions that fear for their lives.
The notion that those of us who view art on our screens—much of it art that we have no access to in person—don’t care about, or can’t perceive, the difference between an actual work and its reproduction is demonstrably wrong. It also snobbishly discounts many profound experiences of art that have long been specifically virtual. If you’ve ever taken an art-history course, you’ve looked at reproduced images of works of art that violate those works’ essential properties. Vermeer’s “Young Woman with a Water Pitcher” is a painting of eighteen by sixteen inches. I learned to love it, and to detect its intricacies, on a screen large enough to comfortably host a projection of “Jurassic Park.” And I’ve never gone running through the Louvre, but my inkling of what that might be like comes from seeing the trio of small-time renegades in Godard’s “Band of Outsiders” sprint, hand in hand, through its corridors. More recently, I watched, from thousands of miles away, via a Webcam feed, as Marina Abramović sat face-to-face with the visitors who came to participate in “The Artist Is Present,” her performance at her moma retrospective of the same name. The intended experience of that piece was accessible only to those who waited in line for hours to get a chance to gaze into Abramović’s eyes. And yet, as I observed these surprisingly intimate interactions, I became a hidden party to them, participating in a way made possible only through a camera and a screen.
The particular familiarity that comes with experiencing a work of art first through a reproduction, whether in a book or on a screen, echoes the feeling of falling in love with a person through a long, intimate correspondence before finally meeting in the flesh. You’ve already come to know the object of your affection, to imagine its beauty and its idiosyncrasies; that feeling is confirmed and, of course, transformed and often deepened by real contact. Visiting museums on Google can lead to a strange reverse engineering of this feeling. Using street view, I went into the Uffizi and turned into the first gallery that presented itself. A large medieval crucifix hung on the wall. I was at the museum seven years ago, but I knew with the deep certainty of a muscle memory that if I wound my way through the next two or three rooms I would come across a favorite treasure: Piero della Francesca’s diptych portraits of the Duke and Duchess of Urbino. I clicked on an arrow on the ground and advanced, clicked another arrow, and, after a few false turns and dizzying spins, wound up in front of the paintings.
Some of what the Cultural Institute is putting up, like a frenetically edited video of a French artist painting a mural and spouting banalities about creativity while wearing Google Glass, has the slick hipness of a commercial. I prefer the weird jaunts that seem to follow the same laws of motion that govern dreams. I’m passing through the first floor of the Musée d’Orsay, trying to get to the building’s upper levels, where most of its goodies are. I see the stairs; I can feel both the sensation of using my legs to climb them and the sensation of clicking my way up with a mouse—then why, each time I click, am I ricochetted back to the ground and transported through a wall, to wind up flat on my back in a different gallery, staring at the ceiling? Because Google hasn’t photographed the upper floors of the Musée d’Orsay; but I can’t shake the sensation of having slipped into an alternate physical universe. Sometimes the tics of street view have wacky consequences—taking a tour of “A Subtlety,” Kara Walker’s recent installation, at the old Williamsburg Domino sugar factory, featuring a sphinxlike mammy figure coated in white sugar, I found myself unwittingly perched on the sculpture’s breasts—but that wackiness is exactly the joy of these virtual tours. We’ve grown so used to assuming that technology of this kind should make things crisper, cleaner, and more efficient that it’s a pleasure, a relief, even, to find an experience that is all but effortless in actual life instead slowed down and warped, complicated by the digital realm.
Museums On Line and its partners.
Some partners participated to the MENHIR – Multimedia European Network for High quality Image Registration project funded under the ESPRIT R&D European Union programme.
Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe, Hamburg, Germany
MUSEA (International not-for-profit association of museums)
Beazley Archive, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, United Kingdom
Laboratoire de Recherche des Musées de France, Le Louvre
Natural History Museum, Stockholm, Sweden
State Historical Museum, Moscow, Russia
Yaroslav Art Museum, Yaroslav, Russia
Musée des Tissus et des Textiles Anciens, Lyon, France.
Museum Informatics Project, University of California, Berkeley
Art Resource – New York
SCALA Archivio Fotografico Editoriale, Florence, Italy
Digital Publishing Japan- Kyoto
Hewlett Packard laboratories, Europe & US
Hewlett Packard Philanthropy, Europe
Le Studio Grolier, Paris, France
National Centre for Science Information Systems (NACSIS), Tokyo
Professional body representing visual artists
Pyramide Europe, Paris, France
Collective rights society protecting Intellectual Property Rights – IPR of visual artists
SOFAM, Brussels, Belgium
Paintings Photographic Images Prints Posters Other
Abingdon American Art Asian Aynsley Bennington Blue Mountain British Art Brush, Brush-McCoy Camark Catalina Colorado Pottery Coors Pottery Dakota Pottery Delf Deruta Pottery European Art Folk Frankoma, Gracetone Fulper Gouda Grueby Hadley Haeger Hull Made in Japan Majolica Maling McCoy Moorcroft Muncie Newcomb Niloak Owens Poole Quimper Robinson Ransbottom Rookwood Roseville Scandinavian Art Staffordshire Stangl Teco Uhl Van Briggle Weller
Adams Adderley American Limoges, Sebring Arabia Aynsley Barker Bros, Sampson Smith Bauer Belleek Beswick Bing & Grondahl Blue Ridge Blue Willow Booths Brush Brush-McCoy Buffalo Burleigh, Burgess & Leigh California Pottery Capodimonte Cardew Carlsbad Carlton Carlton Ware Castleton Childrens Dishes Chintz Coalport Colclough Commemorative Copeland Crown Devon Crown Ducal Crown Staffordshire Dansk Decorative Denby, Langley, Lovatts Dinnerware Dresden Erphila Fiesta Contemporary Fiesta Vintage Figurines Figurines-Animal Fine China of Japan Fitz & Floyd Flow Blue Franciscan Frankoma, Gracetone George, W S Gorham Goss Crested China Grafton, Royal Grafton Grindley Hadley Hall Hammersley Harker Harmony House, Sears Haviland Headvases Herend Homer Laughlin Hull Hummel, Goebel Hutschenreuther, Tirschenreuth Imperial International China Iroquois James Kent Johnson Brothers Knowles KPM Lefton Lenox Limoges Lomonosov Lord Nelson LuRay Made in Japan Masons McCoy Meakin Alfred Meakin J & G Meissen Metlox Midwinter Mikasa Minton Monmouth, Marcrest Western SW Myott Napco Nippon Noritake Occupied Japan Paden City Paragon Pfaltzgraff Pickard Pope Gosser Portmeirion Purinton Red Wing, Rumrill Restaurant Ware Ridgway Rosenthal Rosina Royal Albert Royal Bayreuth Royal China Royal Copenhagen Royal Copley Royal Crown Derby Royal Doulton Royal Dux Royal Staffordshire Wilkinson Royal Standard Royal Winton Grimwades Royal Worcester RS Prussia, Related Russel Wright Sadler Salem Sango Sascha Brastoff Schumann Shawnee Shelley Shenango Southern Potteries Spode Stangl Steubenville Stoneware Susie Cooper SylvaC Syracuse China Tableware Taylor Smith & Taylor Tea Pots, Tea Sets Tuscan Universal Potteries Vernon Kilns Villeroy & Boch Wade Wall Pockets Watt Wedgwood Winfield Wood & Sons
Direct From The Artist
Digital Art Drawings Folk Art & Primitives Mixed Media & Collage Paintings Photographs Prints Sculpture & Carvings Textile Art Other
Art taste very different
As is well known, taste can not be argued about. Some have it, others do not. But if that were so easy, then we would not experience such different things in the art world. There are heads, about which one completely agrees. One of those is Gerhard Richter, an old master of painting. Others have always quarreled and did not always understand what ultimately connects art to politics. An advocate of this direction was Josef Beuys. Teaching at the Kunsthochschule in Cologne, he said that there is an artist in each of them, a politically intended statement. Certainly not all of his colleagues agreed with this statement. Beuys had friends and enemies. Eberhard Richter probably friends and admirers.
Art lovers and their favorites
The question that also arises in art, whether one loves modern art or the old historical paintings and sculptures. And even these can be divided into different categories. Ultimately, there is something to be found in art for every lover. The direction does not always have to be accepted by everyone. Even painters find their inspiration from different directions. Some love religious art and celebrate it with the famous rose paintings. The others see themselves after the aesthetics of the Renaissance, a stylistic form that inspired Greece and rediscovered the purity of forms in later times.
ART TASTE VERY DIFFERENT - SOURCE: FOTOLIA
Art in Europe
An article in www.marken.post.de draws our attention to the different understanding of art in European countries. While dogs and horse pictures are very popular in the London scene, because Englishmen generally appreciate the country life, the Swiss love their mountains above all else and let them implement them painterly. In France, on the other hand, snow pictures are not popular, although the French have the Alps in the east and the Pyrenees in the south. What makes the German taste is unfortunately not mentioned in this article. How about landscapes from the German Buchenwald?
So art is seen on several occasions. Again, there are lovers or people who can do little with it. As long as the lovers are fighting over their rating, there is a lot of movement in the art and the option to bring about a new development. We still do not know where modern art will develop. But one thing is for sure, there will again be fighters and with them many lovers. About art can be argue.
MARCH 28, 2012
Modern art - museum or garbage bin
What art is, the spirits argue for a long time. Are mold sculptures, fat corners, fish preserved in formaldehyde or toilet bowls really art? At any rate, the artists see it that way and have an artistic concept for their idea. Big names like Roth, Beuys or Duchamps are associated with such artworks. So many cleaning lady has answered this question but negatively. The fat corner of Joseph Beuys was inadvertently swept by the cleaning team into the garbage bin - and many other works of art that were not recognizable as such suffered no better fate. The financial damage is often considerable and the glee in the common people too. Otto Normalbetcherter may even think that you could just paint a new bucket of fat on the chair of Beuys and good. But is that still the original artwork? So you would then deal with a destroyed Rembrandt - but on the other hand, everyone will refuse.
The art of modernity raises questions. Here, woodpiles are piled up, where a museum room is polluted with excavated earth. Here millions of yellow pollen are laid out to a color field, there presented thousands of peanut flips in a pile in the middle of the room. And that's supposed to be art ?! Is it possible to conserve such a "work of art" or store it in a museum collection - or do you only buy the idea that has to be renewed for presentation purposes? As spongy as the term "modern art" is, so spongy is sometimes art itself. It sometimes defies any stylistic classification, often even every normal selling opportunity. That's why modern art is so exciting. It rejects old concepts, demands new perspectives and undermines conventional viewing habits. But modern art does not just consist of pictures, installations and films. Today she uses almost every means to portray points of view. Ultimately, modern art is not about the object through which it manifests, but about the underlying concept. For example, Dada wanted to rise up against the then established art and question its meaning.
Whether a work lands in the museum or in the garbage bin, you never know. Outstanding works of art were destroyed by the artists themselves because they were dissatisfied with it. On the other hand, bad works of art are being collected in the world's only "Museum of Bad Art" and are delighting a growing audience that makes poor art the standard. Every time shapes their art. Maybe some world-famous artwork would have ended up in the garbage bin at some point if a resourceful gallerist or art critic had not thrown a new art direction in it.
SEPTEMBER 16, 2011
A preview of the art exhibitions 2013
Art lovers will find a rich offer especially in the German metropolises of Munich, Frankfurt, Cologne, Dusseldorf, Hanover and Berlin. Here, art associations, galleries and museums compete with diverse exhibitions for the attention of potential visitors. Those who find it difficult to make a decision in the light of this abundance will find below a selection of special art exhibitions in 2013 .
There is no way for art lovers in the capital to bypass the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin . The collections of the five sites cover areas of non-European and European art as well as ethnology and archeology. In the Neues Museum on the Museum Island, the exhibition "In the Light of Armana"offers exciting insights into a fascinating era until April 13, 2013 . The exhibition organizers focused on the legendary ancient Egyptian ruler Nefertiti, whose bust was discovered 100 years ago during excavations in the city of Achet-Aton and which now graces the collection as a showpiece.
The exhibition "Helmut Newton: World without Men" takes a look at the beautiful appearance of fashion photography until May 19, 2013 . Shown are legendary shots of numerous fashion icons from Newton's photo book of the same name. The exhibition is supplemented by his exhibition project "Archives de Nuit", which includes not only fashion pictures but also black and white photographs of the genres still life, landscape, nude and portrait.
Visitors to the Gallery Weekend get an insight into the young Berlin art scene. From the 26th to the 28th of April 2013 , many galleries invite you on a tour of their current exhibitions and offer a varied supporting program at various venues.
The view into the Rhineland
A similarly good overview of the art on site at the Düsseldorf Kunstpalast Museum will be held from 24 February to 17 March 2013 at the exhibition "Große Kunstausstellung NRW Düsseldorf". For more than 100 years, an annually changing jury has been selecting artists whose works can be purchased directly from the visitors without gallery participation.
The exhibition "David Hockney. A Bigger Picture "at Museum Ludwig. Here, visitors can experience the popular pictorial formulas of the famous chronicler of the Californian Way of Life until February 3, 2013. In addition to his famous swimming pool paintings from the 60s, newer portraits, photo collages and landscapes are shown.
DECEMBER 17, 2012
The Way to the Art College
Often young people dream of making a great career as artists. In fact, the idea of being paid and celebrated for painting is very tempting, but it is also a fact that training to be a serious artist is a long way and not always glamorous.
On the contrary, it is often the quiet talents who draw and draw from an inner obsession that best develops their abilities. Anyone who wants to be the center of attention as an artist without consistently painting should develop his talents for self-expression better at an acting school .
Drawing talent is innate and often shows up very early in the curriculum vitae . Even more important than the talent is the joy of work and the ambition for artistic development. If a child repeatedly sits bent over his drawing paper and complains constantly about paper shortage or again too short pens, it should therefore be encouraged. Sometimes this gift already shows in kindergarten, sometimes at primary school age . Now a comprehensive promotion is particularly important, through which as many different techniques in the approach should be taught playfully .
Unfortunately, at elementary schools art or work instruction is only "incidentally" accompanied and taught by non-specialist teachers who are also barely able to recognize creative ideas in the work of such a young artist. How important, for example, the often underestimated work instruction at elementary schools, can be read on www.werkzeug-formenbau.de .
But children always need praise and encouragement in order to develop their creativity properly! However, anyone who continues to draw despite a poor art class has already learned the most important lesson: Artists should never be discouraged!
Fortunately, secondary schools often have trained subject teachers who have an eye on who should be supported. This opportunity should be used by talented students to start creating an application folder early , as this is the admission criterion for a place at an art academy. The portfolio should include large format works as well as small sketches and elaborated drawings .The more creatively the portfolio is put together, the better the chances of finding a place to study. However, it is more about versatility, inventiveness and stamina than the perfect technique. Because this is finally taught in art studies!
DECEMBER 12, 2012
16. SEPTEMBER 2011
Artists with character A
Agostino by Duccio
Andrea del Castagno
Allegretto by Nuzio
Abate, Niccolo dell '
Arnolfo di Cambio
Artists with character B
Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi)
Bartolo by Fredi
Bosch, Hieronymus (Hieronymus van Aken)
Bassano, Jacopo (Jacopo da Ponte)
Bernini, Gian Lorenzo
Artists with character C
Corot, Jean Baptiste Camille
Cleve, Joos van
Cima da Conegliano, Giovanni Battista
Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi from
Champaigne, Philippe de
Correggio (Antonio Allegri)
Chardin, Jean Baptiste Simeon
Artists with character D
Donatello (Donato di Niccolo di Betto Bardi)
Domenichino (Domenico Zampieri)
Della Robbia, Luca
Duccio di Buoninsegna
Dyck, Anthonie van
Desportes, Alexandre Francois
Daubigny, Charles Francois
Artists with character E
Eeckhout, Gerbrand van den
Eyck, Barthelemy d '
Everdingen, Allart van
Henry of Tedice
Este, Baldassarre d'
Eusebio from St. George
Eliaerts, Jan Frans
Artists with character F
Fragonard, Jean Honore
Franceschini, Baldassare (Il Volterrano)
Franciabigio (Francesco di Cristofano)
Francesco d’Antonio (Balletta)
Artists with character G
Goya y Lucientes, Francisco Jose de
Gogh, Vincent van
Giotto di Bondone
Ghirlandaio, Domenico (Domenico Bigordi)
Goya, Francisco Javier de
Gachet, Paul Ferdinand
Guercino (Giovanni Francesco Barbieri)
Gericault, Jean Louis Andre Theodore
Giambologna (Jean Boulogne)
Artists with character H
Henner, Jean Jacques
Honthorst, Gerrit van
Huysum, Jan van
Heem, Jan Davidsz. de
Hawkins, Louis Welden
Helst, Bartholomeus van der
Artists with character I
Ingres, Jean Auguste Dominique
Ivanov, Aleksandr Andreevic
Imer, Edouard Auguste
Ingouf, Francois Robert, I
Isabey, Jean Baptiste
Istomin, Konstantin Nikolaevic
Artists with character J
Joos van Gent (Joos van Wassenhove)
Jouvenet, Jean Baptiste
Janssens, Abraham I
Jongkind, Johan Barthold
Jaquerio, Giacomo I
Jacopo da Empoli (Jacopo Chimenti)
Juon, Konstantin Fedorovic
Johnston, John Humphreys
Jollivet, Pierre Jules
Jacopino del Conte
Artists with character K
Kempener, Peter de (Pedro de Campana)
Kustodiev, Boris Mihajlovic
Kramskoj, Ivan Nikolaevic
Kobke, Christen Schiellerup
Kiprenskij, Orest Adamovic
Kirchner, Ernst Ludwig
Kulmbach, Hans Suess von
Korovin, Konstantin Alekseevic
Artists with character L
Le Sueur, Eustache
Leonardo da Vinci
La Hyre, Laurent de
Largilliere, Nicolas de
Le Nain, Mathieu
Le Nain, Louis
Artists with character M
Mariotto di Nardo
Michallon, Achille Etna
Master of the Arcetri Altarpiece
Morales, Luis de (el pino)
Meulen, Adam Frans van der
Artists with character N
Nome, Francois Didier de
Navez, Francois Joseph
Neri di Bicci
Natoire, Charles Joseph
Nittis, Giuseppe de
Nesterov, Mihajl Vasil’evie
Neer, Eglon Hendrik van der
Neroccio di Bartolommeo de’ Landi
Nelli, Ottaviano di Martino
Artists with character O
Orcagna (Andrea di Cione)
Ostade, Adriaen van
Ostade, Isack van
Oggiono, Marco d’
Orsi, Lelio (Lelio da Novellara)
Oudry, Jacques Charles
Ossenbeck, Jan van
Overschee, Pieter van
Oddi, Alessandra degli
Artists with character P
Pulakis or Poulakis, Theodoros
Pietro da Cortona (Pietro Berrettini)
Prud'hon, Pierre Paul
Perugino (Pietro di Cristoforo Vannucci)
Piero della Francesca
Paolo Uccello (Paolo di Dono)
Pinturicchio (Bernardino di Betto)
Pontormo (Jacopo Carrucci)
Puvis de Chavannes, Pierre
Artists with character Q
Artists with character R
Rubens, Peter Paul
Renoir, Pierre Auguste
Rodcenko, Aleksandr Mihailovic
Ribera, Jusepe de (Spagnoletto)
Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn
Repin, Il'ja Efimovic
Artists with character S
Scupola, Giovanni Maria
Seurat, Georges Pierre
Sellaio, Jacopo del
Subleyras, Pierre Hubert
Sassetta (Stefano di Giovanni di Consolo)
Sodoma (Giovanni Antonio Bazzi)
Artists with character T
Tintoretto, Jacopo (Jacopo Robusti)
Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista
Taddeo of Bartolo
Tiepolo, Giovanni Domenico
Taunay, Nicolas Antoine
Tino of Camaino
Thulden, Theodoor van
Taillasson, Jean Joseph
Artists with character U
Ugolino di Nerio
Utrecht, Adriaen van
Ulft, Jacob van der
Ugolino di Vieri
Urbano da Cortona
Utkin, Petr Savvic
Artists with character V
Veronese (Paolo Caliari)
Vigee-Lebrun, Marie Louise Elisabeth
Vincent, Francois Andre
Velde, Adriaen van de
Vecchietta (Lorenzo di Pietro)
Verrocchio, Andrea del
Valdes Leal, Juan de
Vanloo, Louis Michel
Vrubel’, Mihail Aleksandrovic
Artists with character W
Weyden, Rogier van der
Watteau, Jean Antoine
Wittel, Gaspar van
Woutiers or Wautier, Michaelina
Wright, Joseph (Wright of Derby)
Wtewael, Joachim Antonisz
Whistler, James Abbott McNeill
Waldmuller, Ferdinand Georg
Watelet, Louis Etienne
Artists with character X
Artists with character Y
Artists with character Z
Zurbaran, Francisco de
Zacchia of Antonio da Vezzano (Zacchia the Elder)
Ziem, Felix Francois Georges Philibert